Lesson 14: Making Verb Times
Learning how to form verbs of Times 4, 5, and 6
As we learned in Lesson 13, the third of the 4 principal verb parts is Time 4, and it will be used to construct times 4, 5, and 6.
- Why learn times 4-6 first?
- *** All verbs in the latin language have the same forms for these times, without exceptions!
- ** There are no different conjugations
- * All three are formed from the same root (the 3rd principal part).
As an example, we will use the verb "give", listed as do dare dedi dedidatus,a,um.
Instructions: spend no more than 2-3 minutes memorizing how to form each of the verb times. Then do Homework 9.
- Take the 3rd principal part of the verb, and use the endings learned in Lesson 2, with the following conditions.
- You the ** form for you and ye (2nd person)
- The form for they (3rd person plural) will be different, instead of "-int" it will be "-erunt"
- In some rare cases, 3rd person plural will also take -ere, e.g. dixere.
- dedisti **
- dedistis **
- Take the 3rd principal part of the verb, and change the ending from 'i' to 'eram'
- Now use the endings learned in Lesson 2 and all of the endings are regular.
- Take the 3rd principal part of the verb, and change the ending from 'i' to 'ero'
- Now use the endings learned in Lesson 2, only you must change that final 'o into an 'i' (the endings are all regular).
- Most of T.5 and T.6 vary by only one letter.
- The "they" form (3rd person plural) is identical for all 3 forms except for one letter: dederunt - T.4, dederant - T.5, dederint - T.6.
- When pronouncing that "they" form of T.4, the accent goes on the "erunt" ending, therefore: "contavérunt". In T.5 & T.6 it does not go on the ending, thus: contáverant, contáverint.
How can one find a verb in the dictionary when given only a part of it in a sentence? This is a problem in every language - one has to learn vocabulary because the dictionary doesn't list all the principal parts. E.g. you cannot look up "thought" in the dictionary, it is under "think". Some examples:
iussero -> iubeo iubere iussi iussus,a,um - to command, order
iunxit -> iungo iungere iunxi iunctus,a,um - to join, unite
obstrinxero -> obstringo obstringere obstrinxi obstrictus,a,um - to bind
tulerunt -> fero ferre tuli latus,a,um - to carry
This last verb, although it looks highly irregular, is commonly used. E.g. Mary Magdalene: tulerunt Dominum meum - they have taken my Lord (T.4a)
"Latin will kill you... if you're not smart." - Fr. Foster
First Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster
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