Experience III, Lesson 30: Uses of the Subjunctive (part 2)
Learning the different uses and meanings of the Subjunctive (and particles)
Continuing Last lesson, the Subjunctive can be used in numerous different ways.
ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda voluntas
- In English: although, even though, even if, though, granted that - adversarial or concessive (allowing something)
- Particles: [note: often these will be with tamen = nevertheless]
- quamquam + indicative = although
- quamvis, quamtumvis + subjunctive = although
- licet + subjunctive = although
- cum (quum, quom) + subjunctive = although [recall: cum also means because]
- tametsi, etiamsi, etsi + indicative or subjunctive = even if, although - conditional sentences
- ut + subjunctive = although, granted that [recall: ut can also be purpose/final]
- Relative pronoun: + subjunctive can be used to form a adversative = although ('qui,quae,quod' replacing 'cum + is,ea,id')
- Sound: Conditional sentences may sometimes sound subjunctive, nevertheless the adversative clause sounds indicative
E.g. a famous adversative: Ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda voluntas (Ovid) - Although strengths/forces/resources are lacking, nevertheless the will is needing to be praised.
Result or Consecutive Clauses
- ut + subjunctive [recall: ut also has other meanings: purpose, adversarial]
- ut... non + subjunctive [note the difference from the negative purpose "ne"]
- This appears in 3 ways (i.e. how one sees it's not a Purpose/Final clause):
- 1. pure result - after certain words in the main sentence:
- sic / ita / tam - thus / so; tantus / talis - so much / such; tot / toties - so many; adeo - so far/long/much; sicut - as it were
- 2. after verbs of doing and happening
- e.g. efficit ut = it brings-about that; occidit ut = it happens that
- 3. characteristic result
- sunt tales ut dicant => sunt qui dicant - there are those such that they say
- Relative pronoun: qui,quae,quod + subjunctive can form a result clause (qui = ut is, qui non (quin) = ut non)
- Sound: the result clause sounds indicative
- In English: when [beware - cum also means: because, although]
- Particles: cum (quum, quom)
- In the present and future: cum + indicative = when [this is always true]
- In the past:
- cum + indicative = when in pure / simple time, a time with no connection to the rest of the phrase: "when it was 12:15"
- cum + subjunctive = circumstantial when, "under those circumstances"
- Sound: sounds indicative
Recall: the subjunctive will sound indicative 80% of the time, and only sounds subjunctive if it is one of the three: 1. Purpose or final clause, 2. Conditional, 3. Natural subjunctive.
- Cum has three meanings: because, although or when
- cum aegrotare coepisset, filium advocavit = he called his son: when he began to be sick; because he began to be sick; although he began to be sick.
- The relative clause with the subjunctive can have many uses
- laudo te qui libros scribas =
- purpose: I praise you so that you may write books
- causal: I praise you because you write books
- adversative: I praise you even though you write books
Now do Homework 32 and Homework 33+34+35
Third Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster
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