Experience III, Lesson 29: Uses of the Subjunctive (part 1)
Learning the different uses and meanings of the Subjunctive (and particles)
The Subjunctive can be used in numerous different ways, having a variety of meanings in English.
Recall: the subjunctive will sound indicative 80% of the time, and only sounds subjunctive if it is one of the three: 1. Purpose or final clause, 2. Conditional, 3. Natural subjunctive.
Purpose or Final Clause
- In English: in order that, so that, that - looks to the future [+ sometimes the infinitive is used in English]
- positive = ut (or uti) + subjunctive = in order that
- negative = ne (or utne) + subjunctive lest, in order that... not
- Relative pronoun: relative sentence of purpose
- use "qui,quae,quod" replaces "ut is,ea,id"
- pecuniam dedi ut ea adiuvaret pueros => pecuniam dedi quae adiuvaret pueros [follow the sequence of tenses]
- Sound: As one of the 3 cases (20%), purpose clauses sound subjunctive
- I gave the money so that it might help the boys.
- In English: because, since, seeing that, whereas - a reason clause
- quod, quia, quoniam - "he did this because..."
- usually used with the indicative, it can be with a subjunctive when there is a quoted reason (i.e. indicative is the author's opinion), subjunctive is someone else's opinion (as it is said, as he says, reportedly) + subjunctive is used with negated opinion (non quod, non quia)
- cum (quum, quom) + subjunctive = because
- it is always used with the subjunctive for this meaning, but can take the indicative with some other meanings
- quando, quandoquidem, siquidem = because
- normally used with the indicative, these occasionally take the subjunctive when quoting
- note: in a question, "quando" means "when", but in its classical usage, it means "because"
- Relative pronoun: qui,quae,quod + subjunctive can be used to form a relative causal sentence, instead of cum
- subjunctive: laudo librum cum eum scripseris => laudo librum quem scriperis - I praise the book because you wrote it
- note difference from the indicative (non-causal): laudo librum quem scripsisti - I praise the book which you have written
- Sound: the causal sounds indicative
- Definition: they are real questions: who, what, when, where, how, why, etc.
- which are indirect: depending on an external verb (expressed or understood) of saying or thinking: saying, asking, reporting, guessing, knowing, thinking
- Particles: any interrogatives: quis - who, quid - what, cur / quare - why, quando - when, quantum - how much, quomodo / qui - how, quot - how many, qualis - which, quamdiu - how long, quo - where, an - whether, utrum...an - whether...or, ne...an - whether...or not
- In early / classical Latin, the indirect question always uses a subjunctive, in later Latin it is indicative
- Indirect questions depend on an M&M verb (expressed or understood). M&M = Mind & Mouth - verbs such as: thinking, saying, asking, reporting, guessing, knowing, etc.
- Sound: indirect questions sound indicative, except for a few (10%) may sound subjunctive naturally
- I don't know what he wants (90%). Tell me where the children are (90%). I don't know what I should do (10%).
- Note: when a real question becomes indirect, it loses the question mark.
Continue with more Uses of the Subjunctive in Lesson 30
Third Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster
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