Experience III, Lesson 23: Uses of the Participles

All the ways the participles are used in Latin

Recall: the natural meaning of the participles never change!

  1. As an Adjective modifying a noun or pronoun
    homo pugans = the fighting man; homines pugnanti = the fighting men

  2. Alone as a Noun - note: in English, several words are needed
    iudicans = the one judging; cantantes = the persons singing; picta = things having been painted; picturus - the man about to paint; pingenda = things needing to be painted

  3. In Formulae - formulas with the verb "to be"
    1. active-futurity formula = the active participle of futurity with the entire verb "to be"
      laudaturus sum (T.1) = I am about to praise; laudaturi erant (T.2) = they were about to praise
    2. passive-necessity formula = the passive participle of necessity with the entire verb "to be"
      is needing to be = are to be, have to be, need to be, should be, must be, ought to be
      laudandus es (T.1) = you are needing to be praised; laudandae fuerunt (T.4b) - the women needed to be praised
  4. Ablative Absolute - these will be learned in a future lesson coming soon
The entire verb "to be" means these formulas can be used with all 6 indicative verb times and 4 subjunctive times of "to be".
The verb "to be" is not always necessarily nearby the participle.
When the antecedent participle is used with "to be" (T.1-T.3, T.1s-T.2s), it creates a new passive verb, and thus really isn't an antecedent participle
"doctus,a,um" + T.1 "est" = T.4 passive "doctus est" = he has been / was taught
"doctus,a,um" + T.1s "sint" = T.3s passive "doctae essent" = the girls had been taught
Now go on to Homework 24+25 and Homework 26

Third Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster

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