Homework 26-27

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§ We can not let the 'Ides of March' week go by without experiencing fully the super-roman, lean Latin of one of Rome's greatest: GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR [102-44 ante Chr.] in his military commentaries, (his speeches and letters have been lost!! - greatly appreciated by Cicero)

A] (The beginning of his Book II on the Civil War with his rival Cn. Pompeius):
"Dum haec* in Hispania geruntur, C. Trebonius legatus, qui ad oppugnationem Massiliae relictus erat, duabus ex partibus aggerem, vineas turrisque ad oppidum agere instituit" [II,1]
VOCAB. dum=while. haec=these-things. duabus ex partibus=from two sides. ago,agere=to drive ahead. instituo,ere=to decide, to begin.

  1. If the verb is: 'gero,gere,gessi,gestum=to carry-on, wage, accomplish', then what T. do you see in that 'geruntur'? ________, and its reversed will have to be: _________, and then you can give us the proper forms for the other two passives of that verb in the times we have learned. [Why should this be very simple-easy for you? EXPLAIN:]
  2. If in a few days you will be shown that 'relictus erat' is T.5, then what kind of meaning do you want to attach to that particular Latin form!?:
  3. The city name 'Massilia' is in your DICT. with today's designation:
  4. If 'aggerem-vineas-turris' [as military engine-terms] have functions here as: ________, how can 'turris' get into that group? explain from a passing note in your class annotations:
  5. Your own personal version of Caesar's text:

      B] Cicero's brother Quintus almost got demolished by the Gauls because he did not obey Caesar's orders for the defense of the winter camps. Here are some parts of the drama:
      "De improviso ad Ciceronis hiberna advolant.../...Mittuntur ad Caesarem confestim ab Cicerone litterae.../obsessis omnibus viis missi intercipiuntur. Noctu ex materia, quam *munitionis causa* comportaverant, turres admodum centum XX excitantur incredibili celeritate; quae deesse operi videbantur perficiuntur" [De Bello Gallico V,40].
      VOCAB. ab=by. obsessis viis=all roads having been blocked. *munit. causa*=for the sake of fortification. incred. celer.=with unbelievable speed. desum,deesse=to be lacking. operi=to the works, fortification. intercipere=to cut off, block, intercept. perficio=I finish.

      1. While 'excitantur' looks like it means something in your vernacular language, your DICT. will give you an architectural-engineering meaning:=
      2. If the verb is: "mitto, mittere, misi, missum", then what must that sole-alone form in the text mean: 'missi'?? THINK-ANALYSE!! what does 'miSi' mean in Latin?
      3. While you see in the verb: 'comportaverant' T.________, meaning: ________. You see what various meanings in 'mittuntur'?
        Now take your notes or your brain and give us without any stress or pain the proper Latin form on the same verb meaning: "ye were being sent"= ________, "they will be sent"= ________, "we are being sent"= ________, "you will be sent"= ________, "she is being sent"= ________, "I shall be sent as (sicut) I was being sent daily to the post-office [diribitorium]":

      C] (An older retired veteran of Caesar's Tenth Legion - Crastinus - (Mr. Tomorrow!) comes back to fight and exhorts his comrades:
      "Erat Crastinus evocatus* in exercitu Caesaris, qui superiore anno apud eum primum pilum in Legione X duxerat, vir +singulari virtute+. Hic signo dato: "Sequimini me' inquit 'manipulares mei qui fuistis, et vestro imperatori, quam constituistis, operam date. Unum hoc proelium superest../..ille suam dignitatem et nos nostram libertatem reciperabimus" [De Bell Civili III,91].
      VOCAB. *evocatus - cf. DICT. superiore anno=during the previous year. +sing. vir.+=of outstanding virtue. signo dato=the sign having been given. operame dare=give attention-effort. constituere=to decide. primum pilum - cf. DICT.

      1. When you see a verb form like: 'duxerat' you immediately recognize T.________. And when you see a verb form like: 'sequiMINI' you see what subject of the verb?__________. Here in fact it means: 'ye must follow me' [to be learned later this year].
      2. While duxerat gave you a certain Time, the simple 'erat' is what Latin T.________?
      3. Your own accurate version of the living Latin of Crastinus 2051 years later!:
      4. Modify the text a bit and say with your new Latin knowledge:
        + "After the battle, which today will be fought (=proelium gerere), Caesar will have regained (recipero,are) dignities and praises and our freedom will be regained":
        + "We were being moved [moveo,ere] through the example of our singular leader Crastinus and of the other [alius,alia...] soldiers (miles,militis) who were being instigated [instigare] toward-to the noble (nobilis,e) ideals [propositum,i-n.] of our immortal Caesar":

      First Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster

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